Neointimal hyperplasia is a physiologic healing response to injury to the blood vessel wall, involving all the three arterial layers and it occurs in the presence of internal (endovascular) or external (surgical) injury. It is a highly complex process involving several tissues (perivascular, vessel wall, and blood) and numerous cell lineages with multiple molecular signaling networks. So, there is a number of possible targets for inhibition of this process. There are known risk factors for Intimal Hyperplasia, such as diabetes, female gender, presence of systemic inflammation, type of arteries treated, types of surgical and endovascular materials, presence of turbulent flow and genetic status. The present paper discusses the pathophysiology of neointimal hyperplasia and the strategies to prevention and treatment of it.
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