ARTERIAL VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN PERIPHERAL VENOARTERIAL EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION SUPPORT
Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved as a life-saving measure for patients requiring emergent support of respiratory and cardiac function. The femoral artery is the standard site for vascular access when initiating adult venoarterial (VA) ECMO. Cannulation-related complications are a known source of morbidity and it has been speculated that patients undergoing ECMO via femoral arterial cannulation are more likely to develop peripheral vascular complications (up to 70%).
Methods: Retrospective institutional review of patients requiring ECMO (January 2011-August 2017). The primary outcome of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cannulation-related complications on VA ECMO and to determine its effect on patient morbimortality.
Results: Eighty-two patients underwent ECMO during the period of study, 56,1% were male with a mean age of 55,8 years. The VA mode was used in 61 patients, 56 with peripheral cannulation. Femoral arterial access was established in 52 patients (73% percutaneously). Vascular complications were observed in 28,6% of the VA femoral ECMOs: 12 acute limb ischemias and 3 major hemorrhages. At the time of femoral cannulation, distal peripheral catheter (DPC) was placed in 5 patients and none developed limb ischemia. For those who developed limb ischemia, several interventions were performed: DPC placement in 9 cases, fasciotomy in 4 and 2 major amputations. Thirty patients underwent arterial cannulas open surgical removal: 8 underwent balloon catheter trombectomy and 5 needed femoral reconstruction. There was an association between PAD (p=0,03) and ischemic cardiopathy (p=0,02;OR 4,5) with the present of vascular complications after ECMO implantation.
Conclusions: Cannulation of femoral vessels remains associated with considerable rates of vascular events (28.6%). PAD and ischemic cardiopathy are associated with vascular complications in this form of cannulation.
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